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Glossary

  • 3G

    Third generation of broadband cellular network technology featuring higher data transmission speed that the previous generations. Faster rates of data transmission provide high-speed Internet access, video streaming, etc.

  • 4G

    Fourth generation of broadband cellular network technology, a successor of 3G, featuring greater wireless speed and supporting broader bandwidths. Most commonly known 4G technologies are LTE, WiMAX and HSPA.

  • 5G

    Fifth generation of broadband cellular network technology with focus on greater capacity and Massive MIMO, providing a base for the future IoT.

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A
  • ADR

    American Depositary Receipt (ADR) is a certificate denominated in USD that trades at the USA stock market and represents a specified number of shares of a foreign company stock.

  • ADSL

    Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a broadband access technology designed to support high-speed data transmission over conventional telephone lines.

  • AI

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the ability of a computer to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, e.g. speech recognition, decision making, etc.

  • Android

    An operating system developed by Google for smartphones, tablets and laptops. Currently is the leading mobile platform worldwide followed by Apple’s iOS.

  • App

    Short for “application” or “mobile application”. It is a small computer program designed to run on a mobile device (e.g. smartphone or tablet) and usually serves as a tool to quickly implement a specific task. Can be downloaded from AppStore or Google Play platforms.

  • ARPU

    Average Revenue Per User (ARPU) is one of the key metrics used by communications, digital and networking companies. Can be calculated by dividing the total revenue by the number of subscribers.

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B
  • Bandwidth

    A range of frequencies used for data transfer. Also can mean a transmission capacity of a band that is usually specified in kbit/s, Mbit/s or Gbit/s.

  • Base station

    A receiver/transmitter that facilitates wireless communication.

  • Big Data

    Large volumes of unstructured data sets that are hard/impossible to analyze using traditional methods or tools.

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C
  • CEEMEA

    An abbreviation for Central and Eastern Europe, Middle East, Africa.

  • Chatbot

    A computer program or application created to conduct simple conversations with human users.

  • Churn

    A churn rate is a % of subscribers that stopped using a particular service.

  • CIS

    The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a political and economic association of the former Soviet Republics.

  • Cloud

    Cloud computing is a method of processing, managing and storing data using remote servers. Thus, the efficiency of the process relies not on a particular device from which users manage data but from the capacities of remote servers.

  • CSR

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a responsibility of a company towards society and environment. See also ESG.

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D
  • Data Privacy

    Protection of personal information against malicious use.

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E
  • EDGE

    Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) is a technology based on GSM standard featuring increased data capacity.

  • e-Health

    Interception of information technologies and healthcare. The overall idea is to improve quality of healthcare and to provide users with an easy tool to access medical services.

  • eLTE

    Evolved LTE (eLTE) is a technology based on LTE standard featuring higher speed and lower delay.

  • ESG

    Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) factors are three main criteria used by socially conscious investors when evaluating companies.

  • e-Sport

    Cybersport or e-Sport is a sport activity when professional video game players participate in competitive tournaments.

  • e-Ticketing

    An e-ticket is a paperless version of a ticket that can be stored at a user’s mobile device in any format (number, QR code, bar code, etc.)

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F
  • FinTech

    Interception of information technologies and financial sphere when computer programs and/or apps facilitate access to financial and/or banking services.

  • FOL

    Fiber Optic Line/Link (FOL) refers to an optic cable or a network of cables that uses fine, flexible glass or plastic fibers to transfer data at a relatively high speed and in large amount.

  • Frequency spectrum

    Range of radio frequencies used to transmit data. All other factors being equal, the wider the spectrum the higher speed can be achieved when transferring data.

  • FTTH / FTTB

    Fibre To The Home (FTTH) or Fibre To The Building (FTTB) is a broadband network delivered directly to the home / building via optical fiber.

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G
  • GPON

    Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) is a point-to-multipoint access network. As of now GPON is the leading technology among Passive Optical Network with better speeds and energy efficiency.

  • GPRS

    General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a data transmission technology widely used in 2000s. Sometimes also called 2.5G.

  • GSM

    Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). One of the most widely used standards for wireless communication.

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H
  • H, HSPA

    High Speed Packet Access (H, HSPA) is a 3G technology.

  • H+, HSPA+

    Evolved High Speed Packet Access (H+, HSPA+) refers to the next step in HSPA evolution featuring higher data transmission speeds.

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I
  • iOS

    An operating system developed by Apple for its smartphones and tablets. Currently is one of the leading mobile platforms in the world.

  • IoT

    The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a network of devices that can connect and exchange data with each other.

  • IP

    The Internet Protocol (IP) refers to a network protocol that is an essential part of data transmission. Used to identify both sender and receiver.

  • IP telephony

    Internet Protocol telephony (IP telephony) or Voice over IP (VoIP) is a general term for making calls via Internet using IP.

  • IPTV

    Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) refers to broadcasting TV programs using IP via a dedicated network.

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L
  • LTE

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a 4G technology. Enables high-speed wireless communication up to 100 Megabit/s.

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M
  • M2M

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) refers to information exchange between different devices.

  • MIMO

    Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO) is a wireless communication technology featuring multiple antennas that can serve as both the transmitter and the receiver thus allowing to increase data transmission speed.

  • MOEX

    Moscow Exchange (MOEX) is the largest Russian stock exchange.

  • MOU

    Minutes of Use (MOU) is a metric used to show how much minutes an average subscriber spends using a particular service.

  • MVNO

    Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO) is a telecommunications service provider that has neither spectrum nor necessary infrastructure thus entirely relying on other carrier’s network.

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N
  • NB-IoT

    Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) refers to a narrowband radio technology developed for IoT and featuring greater efficiency.

  • Network sharing

    Refers to a practice of sharing the same infrastructure jointly by different network operators.

  • NFC

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is a wireless technology allowing different devices to exchange data when they are in a close range to each other.

  • NYSE

    The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world.

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O
  • OTT

    Over-the-top (OTT) refers to a media distribution practice when content is provided via Internet.

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Q
  • QR-Code

    Refers to a machine-readable type of matrix (2D) barcode typically used to provide access to data via mobile devices.

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R
  • Radio cell

    Refers to a geographic area, which is covered by a single base station.

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S
  • SDN

    Software-Defined Networking (SDN) refers to a network architecture where control plane is separated from the data plane thus making network more adaptable and cost-effective.

  • SEC

    Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is a US government agency responsible for overseeing securities markets and protecting investors.

  • SON

    Self-Organizing Network (SON) refers to a range of solutions that enable automated and constant monitoring over a network performance.

  • Subscriber

    An organization or individual, whose SIM-card: shows traffic-generating activity, accrues a balance for services rendered or is replenished / topped off over the course of any three-month period, inclusive within the reporting period, and was not blocked at the end of the period.

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V
  • V&D

    Voice and Data (V&D) is a general term, often used by telecom operators for a high-level breakdown of services rendered.

  • VAS

    Value Added Services (VAS) is a general term used by telecom operators to describe all non-core services beyond voice calls. Usually VAS include sms, data, content and other services.

  • VOD

    Video on Demand (VOD) is an interactive TV service that allows users to see any given video content at any time.

  • VoIP

    Voice over IP (VoIP) refers to IP telephony.

  • VoLTE

    Voice over LTE (VoLTE) refers to a technology for transmitting voice communication via LTE.

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W
  • Wi-Fi calling

    Refers to a technology for making and receiving call via Wi-Fi.

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